Great Lakes region on the road to stability, says Secretary-General’s Special Envoy to Security Council

More than ever, the Great Lakes region is “resolutely committed to stability,” the Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for the Great Lakes, Huang Xia, told the Security Council this morning. , while presenting the report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of the Framework Agreement for Peace, Security and Cooperation for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the region.

As the report points out, important milestones have been reached. Thus, since the peaceful handover of power in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), President Felix Tshisekedi has begun a “political opening” and reached out to his peers. Uganda and Rwanda have come together and signed a Memorandum of Understanding on August 21 in Luanda to ease tensions. Countries such as Angola, Uganda, the DRC and Rwanda have renewed their commitment to regional cooperation and integration.

There is indeed “a new wind bringing hope and confidence, which has risen on the Great Lakes region”, welcomed the representative of the DRC. However, the report also notes, tensions have not disappeared, particularly between Rwanda and Burundi. In the Central African Republic, armed groups that have signed the Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation are accused of violating certain provisions of the agreement. In South Sudan, sporadic fighting between South Sudan’s People’s Defense Forces and opposition forces continued in parts of the country.

In addition to these tensions, the security situation remains a concern, particularly in eastern DRC, where the exploitation and illicit trade of natural resources is fueling an illegal economy, which, in turn, maintains presence and activism. armed groups. On the health front, the Ebola outbreak continues to cause concern and requires urgent humanitarian intervention, the report says.

Despite this lackluster observation, the Special Envoy nevertheless felt that there was “an important opportunity to address the root causes of instability” in this region. According to him, it should be seized to strengthen regional cooperation to enable people to better benefit from the wealth of their region. For Huang, “Hope is more than ever possible, and we must redouble our efforts to support the region in the positive change it has begun.”

All members of the Security Council welcomed these advances, while insisting on the need to go further to bring peace and stability to the region, with the implementation of the Framework Agreement as a tool. of Addis Ababa, which remains, according to CAte d’Ivoire, “the cornerstone” for lasting peace and stability in the DRC and in the Great Lakes region as a whole.

The full implementation of these provisions will have a positive impact on the situation, said the Russian Federation, insisting however on the decisive stability in the DRC, which would be a factor of regional stability. That said, its implementation is not the responsibility of the DRC alone, but of all countries in the region, the United States said.

Another vector of peace, economic cooperation must also be encouraged, including the fight against corruption and the promotion of transparency in the financial and mining sectors, added Belgium and the United States, anxious to see the Congolese authorities take measures to “motivate international financial institutions to re-engage”.

These measures are all the more expected as socio-economic development is “the” long-term solution for peace and stability, the Chinese representative said. The holding of the second Great Lakes Investment and Trade Conference in Kigali in November may contribute to regional integration, the representative of the Dominican Republic added.

In addition to the economy and the strengthening of cooperation and good neighborly relations, the fight against impunity, the reinforcement of the capacities of the Armed Forces of the DRC and the improvement of the management of natural resources “are indispensable for to succeed in achieving the common goal of pacifying eastern DRC “, for its part, pleaded France, also insisting on the importance of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of armed groups. The health challenges remain immense, responded the representative of the United Kingdom, before stressing the need to act in a coordinated way to fight against diseases including Ebola. “Time is against us,” warned his French counterpart,

As the Security Council looks ahead to the future of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) and the elections in Burundi are scheduled for 2020, it is crucial that to have a concerted UN approach for the Great Lakes region as soon as possible “, summed up Belgium.

MONUSCO should be “not bloated, well equipped, strong and with a mandate adapted to the terrain, like the Rapid Intervention Brigade”, insisted the Congolese representative, while the Russian representative recalled that he It should not be forgotten that sustainable solutions must be found at the regional level on the basis of the principle of “African problems, African solutions”.

THE SITUATION IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION – (S / 2019/783)

declarations

Mr. HUANG XIA, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Great Lakes Region, presented the report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of the Framework Agreement for Peace, Security and Cooperation for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the region. He said that the Great Lakes region is, more than ever, “resolutely committed to stability”. Thus, important steps have been taken in the implementation of the Framework Agreement, notably through the peaceful transfer of power in the DRC and the reaffirmed will of the leaders of the region to face, together, the challenges that hinder its implementation. emergence.

After taking office, the DRC President pledged to work closely with his peers to restore peace and security in the east of his country, said the Special Envoy, adding that “this diplomatic opening Was greeted by all the heads of state in the region whom the senior official had met. In this context, the tripartite and quadripartite meetings, held thanks to the good offices of the Congolese and Angolan Presidents, led to a rapprochement between Uganda and Rwanda, with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between these two countries. He called on the Security Council to encourage the continuation of these efforts.

The willingness to cooperate at the security level has recently resulted in consultations between the security and defense services of the DRC and those of Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda, with the aim of strengthening their cooperation against armed groups operating in eastern DRC. According to Huang, there is “an important opportunity to address the root causes of instability”. It should therefore be seized to strengthen regional cooperation to enable people to better benefit from the wealth of their region. It is in this perspective that he recommended strengthening development programs and accelerating regional integration.

Among the challenges that persist, the Special Envoy underlined the insecurity that results from the presence and activism of armed groups, both foreign and local, in eastern DRC. Similarly, the illicit exploitation and trade of natural resources is fueling an illegal economy that sustains these armed groups. In addition, greater efforts are needed to protect and promote human rights, to ensure more justice, more equity and more respect for the dignity of the human person.

Mr. Huang then mentioned a number of initiatives undertaken by his Office, together with the other guarantors of the Framework Agreement, to support the signatory countries. It is within this framework that the Office undertook consultations with the countries concerned on non-military measures that could be complementary to military operations. It considered it useful to implement these complementary programs, with the support of the international community, to facilitate the voluntary disarmament, repatriation and reintegration of these groups in their country of origin, as well as the rehabilitation of affected communities. . In addition, cross-border projects that create jobs for young people need to be implemented, he suggested.

Huang was pleased to see that “cooperation and regional integration are being revitalized”. The DRC, Burundi, Uganda and Rwanda have thus expressed their interest in “starting a political conversation on the issue of natural resources, in order to make them the lever of shared prosperity”. The Office of the Special Envoy also supports the preparations for the second edition of the Great Lakes Investment and Trade Conference to be held next March in Kigali. Huang called on the Council to support this initiative, which will highlight the role of the private sector in seeking lasting peace.

On another level, judicial cooperation and the fight against impunity have been strengthened thanks to the adoption last May by justice ministers of the region of the Nairobi Declaration on Justice and Good Governance. .

The Special Envoy also recalled that promoting the role of women, youth and civil society is one of his priorities. Consultations between the Framework Agreement Guarantors and civil society took place last September in Nairobi and resulted in recommendations to promote greater involvement of civil society in political processes and in reaching the gender parity. For Huang, “hope is more than ever possible, and we must redouble our efforts to support the region in the positive change it has begun.”

Mr NICOLAS DE RIVIA�RE (France) welcomed the recent signing of a memorandum between Rwanda and Uganda aimed at facilitating their political and economic relations, a memorandum stemming from the shared desire to work to reduce insecurity in the region Great Lakes. However, the French Ambassador regretted that the situation in this region is still marked by tensions and insecurity, the deterioration of the humanitarian situation and the presence of foreign armed groups and various militias. After commending the efforts of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) in eastern DRC, as well as those of President Tshisekedi to fight against impunity,

Mr. de RiviAre also emphasized the importance of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes of armed groups to enable the effective reintegration of demobilized combatants into their country or community. “In Ituri, the process started with the Congolese group, Ituri’s Patriotic Resistance Force (FRPI), it must be pursued quickly to avoid any relapse of the conflict.” “Time is against us,” warned the representative. , before calling on the international community to mobilize to resolve the humanitarian and health crisis in the region due to the conflicts and the Ebola, malaria, measles and cholera epidemics. “Only 30% of the funds needed for the DRC humanitarian response plan have been provided,”

Development and economic cooperation are an important vehicle for peace in the Great Lakes region, stressed Mr. MARC PECSTEEN DE BUYTSWERVE (Belgium), as long as they are respectful of human rights and of the environment. Thus activities against corruption must be supported, transparency must be increased in the financial and mining areas, which he says will “motivate international financial bodies to re-engage”.

“Our most important message, underpinning the success of everything else, is the security, political, humanitarian and human rights situation in the region,” said Pecsteen. He welcomed the new regional dynamic, “largely initiated by Presidents Tshisekedi and Lourenco”, and the implementation of the Peace Agreement in the Central African Republic as well as the political transition in Sudan. Belgium, however, remains concerned about the internal situation in some countries, particularly inter-communal violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in Djugu, Mahagi and Irumu. Not to mention that the Ebola epidemic is raging in the region and that malaria and cholera continue to claim many lives.

Finally, Mr. Pecsteen recalled that the Security Council will soon discuss the future of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) and that the elections in Burundi are planned for 2020 He therefore considered it crucial to be able “to have at the earliest a concerted UN approach for the Great Lakes region”.

Mr GBOLIA� DA�SIRA� WULFRAN IPO (CAte d’Ivoire) welcomed the progress made in the implementation of the political processes in some countries of the Great Lakes region, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), with the holding of peaceful elections and the formation of a government; in the Central African Republic, with the signing of a political agreement between the Government and 14 armed groups; and Burundi, with the progress of preparations for the 2020 elections.

However, these positive signals must not lose sight of the security and health challenges facing these countries, especially the DRC, where the Ebola virus continues to spread, and where armed groups continue to destabilize the eastern provinces. , forcing civilian populations to move to safer areas, thus aggravating the humanitarian crisis, said the representative. For these reasons, CAte d’Ivoire calls for maintaining all the support granted to the DRC to fight against this disease. It also recalls that the Addis Ababa Framework Agreement remains “the cornerstone” for lasting peace and stability in the DRC and in the Great Lakes region as a whole.

While welcoming the progress made in the implementation of the Framework Agreement, Mr. JOSA� SINGER WEISINGER (Dominican Republic) expressed his concern about the fragile security situation, particularly in the DRC. where armed groups are intensifying their attacks against the civilian population, the armed forces and MONUSCO. These attacks have a negative impact on peace, cross-border stability and the entire region, he added. He called on the countries concerned to join forces to dismantle these groups, eradicate the illegal trafficking of natural resources and the smuggling of arms and ammunition. According to him, development plans that include youth affected by armed conflict are needed.

On the humanitarian situation, Singer Weisinger said the millions of displaced people and refugees in South Sudan and other countries in the region stress the need to continue to encourage political progress. He welcomed the forthcoming Investment and Trade Conference dedicated to cross-border investment, which can contribute to economic integration and sustainable development. More generally, he advocated for regional solutions through dialogue and cooperation.

Mr JUN ZHANG (China) said he was encouraged by developments in South Sudan with the establishment of a transitional government last August. Since taking office, the Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for the Great Lakes Region has continued his good offices, he noted, noting that Mr. Xia has done a great deal to improve relations between the region and to strengthen their cooperation, as well as to ensure the implementation of the Framework Agreement for Peace, Security and Cooperation for the DRC and the region. China urges countries in the region to seize the positive momentum it has created to further enhance mutual trust and cooperation among them, he said, while calling on the international community to support these efforts.

For his part, the representative of China made three suggestions. First of all, concerning the humanitarian situation in the DRC, where the number of displaced people and refugees is enormous – in addition to hunger and the still unresolved Ebola epidemic, measles and cholera – he invited the international community to strengthen its assistance and assistance. The Office of the Special Envoy can help strengthen cooperation by asking the United Nations and countries in the region to coordinate more closely with illegal armed groups, he said. Finally, he felt that socio-economic development is “the” long-term solution and that considerable efforts are needed to achieve it. The root causes of the regional crisis are poverty and lack of development, he said.

Mr. ANATOLIO NDONG MBA (Equatorial Guinea) welcomed the positive developments in the Great Lakes region, including the holding of peaceful elections, the democratic transition and the formation of a new government in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); the signing of the revitalized Agreement on the settlement of the conflict in South Sudan, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD); the signing of a memorandum of understanding between Uganda and Rwanda to end hostilities; the return to calm in Burundi, marked by the approval of a new constitution and a new electoral code, with a view to the holding of general elections in May 2020;

Despite the efforts of national authorities to address the humanitarian crisis in the region, the representative expressed concern at the presence of large numbers of people forcibly displaced in the Great Lakes, who were prey to malnutrition, cholera, measles and Ebola. He also expressed concern over frequent attacks by “illegal, foreign and national armed groups” in the region. To address these challenges, Mr. Ndong Mba called on the United Nations to redouble its efforts to work with the African Union (AU) and regional and subregional organizations on the continent. He also called the International Organization of La Francophonie (OIF),

Ms. KELLY CRAFT (United States) said that she welcomed the progress that had been made in the countries of the Great Lakes region, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), with the holding of peaceful elections and the appointment of a new government. The United States is waiting for other measures to bring investors back to the country. In addition, the United States believes that the implementation of the Framework Agreement for Peace, Security and Cooperation is the responsibility of all countries in the region and not just the DRC, said the representative. Despite these advances, the United States remains concerned about the violence that persists in eastern DRC. They believe that the disarmament of groups remains a means of bringing peace and stability to the country.

Regarding Burundi, Ms. Craft said she was following the situation closely and was concerned about the restrictions on political parties and civil society. The holding of credible and peaceful elections is crucial to Burundi’s good relations with the United States and the international community as a whole, the representative warned. For this reason, and as the deadline for the 2020 presidential election is fast approaching, she said that the international community, and the Security Council in particular, should remain seized of the situation in Burundi because, she concluded, “the lives of millions of people depend on it”.

The Great Lakes region has always been characterized by internal conflicts and conflicts among its members, said JONATHAN GUY ALLEN (United Kingdom), but recently, he noted, cooperation has increased. He praised the efforts of the President of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Mr. Tshisekedi, in that sense, the signing of the memorandum of understanding with Rwanda, the holding of meetings focused on trust between the intelligence services and to strengthen their response to illicit armed groups. At the same time, the challenges to security, development, human rights remain immense: it is important to act in a coordinated way to fight against diseases including Ebola and to guarantee adequate funding for military response programs, especially in eastern DRC, where armed groups continue to commit atrocities and pose a significant threat to the region. It is important, he added, that President Tshisekedi fully masters the DRC security forces and is not allowed to take part in the atrocities.

The actors in the region must also act together to address the root causes of these conflicts and to prevent armed groups from receiving support within and outside the region and to control significant resources such as gold, coal and other minerals. Allen said it is in the interest of countries and populations to turn these illicit flows into legal flows to contribute to the development and stability of the region. The United Kingdom therefore encourages the Special Envoy to continue his efforts to create stable production chains and strengthen regional trade relations. In Burundi, restrictions on fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press, are “unacceptable” as the country prepares elections for next year, Allen said.

Mr. PAUL DUCLOS (Peru) welcomed the consolidation of bilateral relations and efforts for better coordination and regional integration. On the political front, he welcomed the commitment of the signatory countries of the Framework Agreement for peace, security and cooperation for the Democratic Republic of Congo and the region in the electoral process in Burundi in 2020, as well as in the the implementation of the Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic. He also welcomed the political openness promoted in the DRC by President Tshisekedi, as well as the establishment of a civilian government in Sudan following the mediation of the African Union and Ethiopia.

However, the representative expressed concern about the presence of armed groups attacking the civilian population and illegally exploiting natural resources, as well as increasing inter-communal violence and human rights violations in several territories. Reasons why it considered it very important to deal with security problems in a coordinated way, through joint initiatives such as the meeting of intelligence and security services of Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and of the DRC, held last June in Kinshasa. In addition, in view of the humanitarian situation in the region, the representative of Peru wished that the international community continue to provide the necessary funding.

Ms JOANNA WRONECKA (Poland) welcomed the opportunity for consolidation of peace and stability in recent months in the Great Lakes region, including the holding of peaceful elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) ), the signing of the revitalized Agreement on the settlement of the conflict in South Sudan, and the Political Agreement for Peace and Peace Reconciliation between the Government of the Central African Republic and 14 armed groups. In spite of this, major challenges persist, especially posed by armed groups and tensions emerging between signatories to the peace agreements, and by the numerous human rights violations that result in displacement of people. aggravation of the humanitarian situation.

Given this situation, Poland believes that combating illegal cross-border activities must be an integral part of efforts in the region. It is even an essential precondition for combating armed groups and ensuring the success of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process, said her representative.

Mr DIAN TRIANSYAH DJANI (Indonesia) stressed the need to address the root causes of conflicts in the Great Lakes, the continuing challenges to human rights in the region and the threats posed by armed groups, as well as illegal exploitation of resources and lack of development, which is also a cause of conflict.

The representative then welcomed the efforts of DRC President Felix Tshisekedi to strengthen relations with his neighbors. Trust is important and partnerships critical, so the international community must support these efforts to support peace and security, “said Djani. The international community must also give priority to emergency relief to improve the humanitarian situation, both in the DRC and in Burundi, while there are still more than 400,000 refugees. Contagious diseases require immediate assistance, he stressed, noting that available funding covered less than half of the needs.

Mr. Djani paid tribute to the role played by the regional organizations, which together with the United Nations are the guarantors of the Framework Agreement signed by the countries of the region. He urged them to ensure that all countries cooperate, including preventing the illegal transport of natural resources.

Mr CHRISTOPH HEUSGEN (Germany) praised progress in the region which he felt was attributable mainly to President Tshisekedi of the DRC. Germany encourages him to continue his efforts and the regional rapprochement. The challenges, however, remain many, immediately tempered the representative, who cited the attacks by armed groups, displacement of people or illegal exploitation of resources, which continue to pose a threat to positive developments.

For the future, the representative defended the holistic approach of the Special Envoy, insisting on good governance, especially in Burundi with the approach of the elections, which will be “key”, and on the respect of the rights of the the fight against corruption, against impunity, the reinforcement of justice in all countries, the participation of young people and women. Heusgen lamented continued violence, particularly sexual violence, in eastern DRC, much of which, he said, was committed by security forces. These issues must be addressed, he added, recalling that the Nobel Peace Prize winner Dr. Mukwege had described the situation in the region on 23 April before the Council, before it adopted resolution 2467 (2019) to be implemented, he insisted.

Finally, at the economic level, the representative supported the border cooperation and Investment Conference to be held in Kigali in November. However, he warned, to create more jobs requires good governance, otherwise investors will not come.

Mr. BADER ABDULLAH NM ALMUNAYEKH (Kuwait) commended the progress made in the Great Lakes region, including the elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the formation of a government and the initiatives taken by President Felix Tshisekedi to bring back peace in the region. There is no doubt that the Framework Agreement on Peace, Security and Cooperation remains the appropriate tool for restoring stability and promoting economic development in that region, he said, also welcoming the fact that next year’s Great Lakes Investment Conference. Believing that compliance with the peace agreements is a guarantee of stability, the delegation of Kuwait remains concerned about the actions of certain armed groups.

Mr DMITRY A. POLYANSKIY (Russian Federation) commended the Framework Agreement as the cornerstone for ensuring regional stability. The full implementation of its provisions will have a positive impact on the situation, he said, before stressing stability in the DRC, which is decisive for regional stability. The representative therefore welcomed Mr. Tshisekedi’s efforts in favor of political stabilization and the establishment of positive relations with his neighbors. In particular, he welcomed the meeting held in Kinshasa in June with intelligence and security officials. However, eastern DRC remains plunged into a complex situation including attacks by armed groups, community conflicts and the Ebola outbreak, Polyanskiy said.

The representative welcomed the achievements of MONUSCO and the Congolese Armed Forces in dealing with several armed groups and called for strengthening disarmament efforts to address the problem of illegal forces and to overcome this complex military situation. He also called for harmonizing regional strategies to resolve the plight of refugees and address the root causes of such displacement. Durable solutions must be found at the regional level, on the principle of “African problems, African solutions”, he concluded.

Mr. JERRY MATTHEWS MATJILA (South Africa) expressed concern about the security situation in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the deteriorating humanitarian situation in many parts of the country. He stressed the need to train Congolese armed forces to be able to respond to developments on the ground. He then welcomed regional and international initiatives to prevent the Ebola epidemic from becoming endemic. With regard to the Central African Republic, the delegate expressed concern at the logistical difficulties that hinder the implementation of the Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation. He also expressed concern about the activities of non-state actors who carry out illegal taxation and obstruct the deployment of state institutions and national security forces. He hoped that the easing of the arms embargo, decided by the Security Council in September, would speed up the restoration of state authority throughout the country.

In addition, Mr. Matjila noted that collaboration with the World Bank, the European Union, the African Development Bank and other development actors was instrumental in promoting the reconciliation process in the Central African Republic. With regard to Burundi, South Africa indicated that it had supported inter-Burundian dialogue, including the facilitation process led by the East African Community, in the spirit of Arusha Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation. Referring to the situation in South Sudan, he welcomed the recent meeting between Salva Kiir and Riek Machar before calling for an ongoing dialogue that would break the political stalemate. Emphasizing the importance of regional stability, he reiterated the need to combat the illegal exploitation of natural resources. Finally, it considered cooperation between the Great Lakes countries essential to eliminate all armed groups through appropriate security sector reforms and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes.

Mr. IGNACE GATA MAVITA WA LUFUTA (Democratic Republic of the Congo) regretted not having read the Special Envoy’s report until “late yesterday evening”. He said that President Tshisekedi had decided to revitalize the National Framework for Monitoring the Framework Agreement and that evaluation work was under way to draw up a state of play of its implementation. In the quest for peace and security, the President has set in motion a new dynamic on three fronts: strengthening the capacities of the defense services; promotion of national reconciliation; and activation of regional diplomacy.

For the first part, military operations are underway in the provinces of Ituri and North Kivu to put out of harm’s way the negative forces; on national reconciliation, a process aims to promote peaceful coexistence among local communities; Finally, tours have been undertaken in several countries in the region to try to restore, and sometimes rebuild, the necessary trust between the states. It is in this context, said Mr. Gata Mavita Wa Lufuta, that the rapprochement and dialogue initiated by President Tshisekedi in Kinshasa last month, at a summit that brought together his peers from Angola and Rwanda, followed by another summit in Luanda with Uganda and Rwanda. A third summit, in Luanda again, gave rise to the memorandum of understanding between MM. Kagame and Museveni. “These meetings mark the determination of the leaders of the region to work together for peace. “

With regard to the United Nations, the representative said, President Tshisekedi spoke in favor of maintaining the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), but for a MONUSCO ” not bloated, well equipped, strong and with a mandate adapted to the terrain, like the Rapid Intervention Brigade, “he insisted.

The Special Envoy’s report highlights the efforts of the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) in collaboration with MONUSCO to eliminate foreign armed groups in the east of the country. “These efforts will continue until the total eradication of these groups,” said Gata Mavita Wa Lufuta. He welcomed the fact that the ex-combatants of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) who had surrendered were repatriated to Rwanda with the help of the Mission. While the Government of the DRC reaffirms its determination to fulfill its commitments under the Addis Ababa Framework Agreement, it requests that the elements of the ex-M23 returning to the country be made available to the authorities. and also calls for the involvement of the countries of the region and the Security Council to resolve this situation.

“A new wave of hope and confidence has been emerging in the Great Lakes region,” said Gata Mavita Wa Lufuta. The Congolese representative hoped that the countries of the region would seize this opportunity to restore trust between their leaders and that the international community and the United Nations would support the efforts undertaken.

Source: UN Security Council